Friday, September 20, 2019

PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION

PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION

PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION
PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION

MOTIVATION - I   
 When we are interested in an activity or we real emerge to do it, we pay active attention to it, our performance will be quick and efficient. If an activity in forced on us against our desire, we do it but attention will be nominal and performance poor. In the first case there is strong good motivation, in the second, motivation if at all there is, it is poor in quality and strength. When people are highly motivated, they work intensively and accomplish more than they do when working in the routine way.
Learners learn only when they are ready to learn. It is quite natural that human mind is always busy in thinking something or the other. So, it is necessary to attract attention of the learners towards us to make out teaching successful, they are to be fully motivated before every new lesson is presented.
MOTIVATION: There are so many definition used in educational field, out of which a few are mentioned here.
“Motivation can be defined as the process whereby a person can be internally or externally stimulated towards an activity”. Motivation is the impulsion based on a need to do something to satisfy that need.
“Motivation is nothing but providing a sort of inducement to action. It is the process by which the pupil’s will do work is maintained.
A motive is a drive which aims for a goal, we can say: - DRIVE + GOAL = MOTIVE.
Motivation is a moving force or stimulus which precedes a behaviour or an act.
KIND OF MOTIVATION: Motivation can be broadly classified into two kinds:-
1) NATURAL OR INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: is that which originates from within a students own personality structure. Intrinsic motivation is defined as a “State in which an individual wants to do or learn for its own sake”. It is more effective in learning situation.
2) ARTIFICIAL OR EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION: it is define as a “State in which an individual does or learns something, not for his own sake but as a means of obtaining desired goal”. It is less effective than natural motivation.
ELEMENTS OF MOTIVATION:
For motivation following elements are good.
a) Good objective for learning is a suitable element for motivation.
b) Success, pleasantness, personality of an Instructor, knowledge of progress and incentives etc., are the elements of motivation.
USE OF MOTIVATION:
1. Motivation has four effects on learning:-
 a) it assists in initiating learning.
 b) It helps in directing learning, learning towards a particular worth while educational goal.
 c) It aids in continuance of learning especially when obstacles of difficulties arise.
 d) It contributes to reinforcement of learning.
2. Motivation implies student activity and this contributes its chief value in the educational   situation, since learning is by its natural active process.
3. Motivation results in greater effort on the part of the student. It makes that effort more pleasant    and more enjoyable.
4. Motivation stimulates a wide variety of responses and solutions.
5. Motivation helps to remove the lack of willingness on the part of the student to learn.
TECHNIQUES OF CLASS ROOM MOTIVATION:
Motivation is an integral part of teaching. It should help the students to form cooperative habits instead of rivalry habits. The following are some successful class room motivation techniques.
Instructor should:-
a) Be aware of biological need of the learner.
b) Use teaching techniques suitable to the age and mental development of the trainees.
c) Promote more class room security.
d) Develop the spirits of independence.
e) Make the learner to participate in learning.
f) Create pleasant situation in the class.
g) Provide incentive for learning.
h) Present impressive visual aids.
i) Create problem solving situation.
j) Set goal for every activity.
k) Watch the learner’s health against fatigue.
l) Inform the progress of his students.
m) Provide learning by learning situation.
SOURCES OF MOTIVATION:
The various sources from which a learner could draw inspiration to get properly motivated are as follows:-
1. A good teacher himself.
2. A favorable learning situation.
3. Encouraging attitude of all concerned.
4. Ample of opportunities to develop total personality.

METHOD OF MOTIVATION:
Motivation very much depends on need of a person. Some persons have their specific needs they understand the necessity of it and learn accordingly. The immediate and long range needs incite a learner to learn effectively.
In order to create motivation in an individual, there are various methods to be followed. Some of these are:-
1. By telling the necessity and importance of knowing new information and how the same will help them in their carrier.
2. By telling the relevant personal experience in the trade.
3. By telling some chances with in the future in Industrial field.
4. By personal and group activities. Motivation may being the form of personal need or group need.
5. By giving recognition and security.
6. By use of rewards.
7. By encouraging greater responsibilities.
8. By knowing the trainees.
MAINTAINING LEARNERS INTEREST:
The learners come for learning with many hopes and aims. Some of them have desire to improve their position or social standing and to obtain better benefits from life. Their minds are not matured to keep them firm on their decision and they may loose their interest. It may happen during one class lesson as well as during the period of training. Hence the Instructor should be quite tactful to deal with the young learners to sustain the interest among them (trainees for continuous learning).
A few of the following tips will guide the Instructor to help him in sustaining the interest amongst the learners:
1. The behavior of the Instructor towards his learners should be such that they feel that he is their own man, their guardian and their right teacher.
2. The method of teaching should not be such that they feel a burden over their shoulder but they should feel pleasure in the learning.
3. The Instructor should show interest equally to individual learner.
4. The Instructor should encourage competition in learning activities.
5. The Instructor should give the credit to the work well done.
6. The instructor should be impartial in his judgment.
7. The instructor should regard the deserving learner for outstanding work.
8. The instructor should try to provide favourable working condition.
9. The instructor should keep the entire class active with appropriate assignment.
10. The instructor should not find fault only with the job done by the learner. First he should point out the operation well done and appreciate his work and then show the defects and explain how they could be rectified.
11. The instructor should not give lengthy job to the learner, because they are keen to see its final appearance as early as possible.
12. The instructor should preserve the job done by the learners to let them feel that there is a value of the efforts made by them in making those jobs.
13.  The instructor should not abuse a learner for any mistake in front of his fellow metes. Reprimand him in a separate place.     
14.  The instructor should work along with trainees to help them.
CAUSES OF LOSS OF INTEREST:
There are so many causes to loose interest of the learners during training, some of them mentioned below:-
a) Learners having: b) Because the Instructor:

i. Poor physique. i) Offers unnecessary criticism.
ii. Bad company. Ii) Gives bad treatment.
iii. Fatigue (over work). Iii) Gives the work beyond the capacity of the learner
iv. Repulsion. iv) Has no self discipline.
v. Worry. v) Has inadequate preparation for teaching.
vi. Financial difficulties. vi) Teaching through dictation.
vii) Have defects in methods of instruction.
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Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Explanation On Why PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION LEARNING Is Important.

PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION LEARNING

A.  Psychology means the Science of Human & Animal behavior. The psychology which is applied to the teaching-learning situation is known as educational psychology. It is an applied branch being one of the main fields of psychology. It consists of the application of psychological principles and techniques to the development of educational strategies and programs and to the solution of educational problems. The main function is that of helping peoples who are involved in education to develop a better theoretically and functional understanding of the educational process.

     
PSYCHOLOGY-OF-EDUCATION-LEARNING
PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION LEARNING


B.  PSYCHOLOGY OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

The psychology of learning has a special significance to a person, interested in the field of industrial training. The reason for this is quite plain. The seeds of learning are always sown in the brain or mind. So the science of mind engulfs (covers) everything related to learning and teaching.

The objectives of education are more general and these of training more specific. The figures shown below brings out the interrelation between education and training.
                                                                          

          T R A I N I N G                                                      E D U C A T I O N
                                                                                             

Broadly speaking training goals at developing an industrial in the spheres of vocational skills, related knowledge, and attitude. A person can not play a profession successfully unless he is through with the skills implied therein. The related professional knowledge is desirable to have a versatile (wide) background of the profession. Without this professional upgrading would not be possible.

Background knowledge enables a person to use his direction whenever the same is required to be exercised. Otherwise, he would simply “do as told”. The importance of attitude surpasses both skill and knowledge. One may possess any amount of professional skills and knowledge. Skill and knowledge remaining constant performance are proportional to the attitude towards work. Present-day the trend has demonstrated the truth of this hypothesis beyond doubt.

In an organized effort (called training) the development of skill, knowledge, and attitude is carried out through the process of teaching. The process of human development, by way of definition, means unfolding, out of originally unorganized individual human functions. It follows from this definition that natural potential (through heredity) should be possessed by the individual so that it could be developed through training. The natural potential for specific functions is called aptitude. There is a possibility that so people may mix up the term attitude and aptitude. Aptitude is the basic ability to perform a particular function, whereas, attitude means the will to perform. Training can develop an attitude and aptitude. Aptitude is a pre-requisite in a learner before the start of the teaching process. Aptitude can be developed but generally can not be changed totally but attitude can be developed and changed through training. 

DEFINITION OF LEARNING

 The acquirement of new knowledge, skill, and technique which can be reproduced at will in response to a given stimulus or situation. Learning is a change in behavior.

OBJECTIVE

Learning feeds on success.

Adjusting the human being to this changing world.

Common and agreed facts about the learning process that are:-

1. Learning is essentially a natural process – a process of growing.

2. Essentially an “active process”. Such activeness being with either mental or physical or combination of both.

3. A continuous process that begins at birth and continues throughout life. (the saying “Never too old to learn” comes from this)

4. Learning is a slow and continuous process and becomes easy when goes from simple to complex.   

5. Learning through the involvement of senses is more effective, clear and deep-rooted.

TEACHING AND LEARNING
Teaching and learning are clearly two different processes, (through inter-related). The process of teaching has to abide by the factors of learning. And for this reason, the teaching techniques have to take a clue from the learning process. Any effort to improve the efficiency of the teaching process would fail unless it is well connected and based on the basic factors/principles of learning.


Eliminate Your Fears And Doubts About THEORIES OF LEARNING

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Wednesday, April 10, 2019

The Shocking Revelation of EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY.


EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Introduction: Your experience and behavior have much in common with the experience and behavior of other people. Even your problem of adjustment – the frustration to be overcome, the aspirations to be achieved, the emotions to be controlled, the personal and interpersonal conflicts to be resolved – are shared by many others. So, look upon this as a subject about yourself – not as a  treatise on some hypothetical human being. While studying it, continually ask yourself, “How does this apply to me”. Remember, too, that the study of psychology can give you insight into the conduct of other people. It should increase your understanding; improve your ability to predict, perhaps even control, their behavior. Application of psychology in the home, in the classroom, in the professions, in business, in industry, in warfare, and in the perpetuation of peace are focused primarily on the prediction and control of human conduct.
Shocking Revelation of EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Shocking Revelation of EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

The professional preparation for teaching requires more than mere knowledge of a given subject. The aspiring teacher should have a solid foundation in general education in addition to a sound knowledge of the subject of his specialization. Besides, he must have knowledge of Educational Psychology.

Educational Psychology plays a significant role in equipping the student-teacher for effectively guiding children and young people in their growth and development through learning. The nature and scope of Educational Psychology are examined in the discussion, which follows.
Psychology and Education: Before we explain Educational Psychology, it may be appropriate to define education and psychology individually. Education attempts to modify behavior through the process of learning, while psychology studies behavior. Behavior can be modified only after it has been studied and understood. Thus, a student-teacher must learn and absorb psychology before he proceeds to impart education.

Pestalozzi, a Swiss schoolmaster, ingeniously thought of psychologizing education by stating that “a good schoolmaster studies his scholar’s nature as carefully as they study their books.” He proclaimed that the mind of a people is the primary concern of the educator and that the art of education must be based on accurate knowledge of the mental processes. He must know both English and the people in order to teach English to him. Since the knowledge of the people in psychology, the teacher must know psychology.   

The earlier definitions of psychology as the science of the soul, or mind or of the consciousness have since been discarded in favor of the definition that psychology is the science of behavior. Various states of consciousness like thinking, feeling and desiring can no doubt be examined by looking into one’s mind, i.e., by introspection, but introspection is not foolproof. Behavior, on the other hand, can be successfully studied by several means, besides the simple method of observing it. You cannot study a child conscious state like anger directly, but you can definitely recognize it from his behavior: from the glare in his eyes, his flushed face and clenched fists, all of which are easily observable. You know from your own experience how you behave when angry and hence conclude from the child’s behavior that he is angry. Thus, psychology is the interpretation and explanation of behavior in mental and psychical terms. The assumption behind this belief is that the mind controls behavior or is the source of behavior.

Educational psychology helps the teacher to understand his pupils, whose education or training is his responsibilities. It also makes him more competent to shape them. It helps him to know himself and to adjust himself to the demands of the school environment. It gives him the confidence to deal with his pupils and the ability to control and manipulate the teaching methods and materials. Psychology is the science that underlies the art of teaching.

IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHERS:   

Educational psychology helps the teacher to become a better teacher, and to learner to become a better learner. In the education of teachers, educational psychology makes discipline a scientific tool, a precision instrument by which teachers can clarify goals, increase their perspective of the learning process, and learn to evaluate not only their pupils but also themselves.

Educational psychology is as crucial to teacher education as physics is to engineering or anatomy is to medicine. Although the anatomy teacher suggests no surgical techniques, one can imagine the consequences if a surgeon were to operate without a sound knowledge of anatomy. A similar relationship exists between educational psychology and teaching. Educational psychology advocates no particular teaching method or learning theory, but a variety of choices that would help one to understand standard behavior and thus improves one’s teaching techniques (Travers, 1979).
Educational psychology equips the teacher with such knowledge as can make him competent to direct or guide learning, motivates pupils to learn, helps pupils develop desirable attitudes, improve teaching techniques, and achieve those personal qualities that are conducive to successful teaching (Crow and Crow, 1964).
The teaching-learning process is somewhat like that of selling and buying. A salesman’s job is to convince customers to buy his wares. He has to demonstrate and smooth talk, irrespective of the fact whether he wins a prospective buyer. Hence all that he does from promoting to actual selling is merely a means to an end.

Similarly, the primary task of an educationist is to guide and direct the learning process of students and steer them towards a goal: that of knowledge and wisdom. And the more his persuasive skills the better he can instruct and edify. The educator is in effect an applied scientist who on the basis of his knowledge and teaching skills can guide young minds to be on the right track to academic aims and aspirations.
Another way of looking at it is to consider learning as a natural process of growth of the mind and intellect. And for healthy growth, a child requires an atmosphere congenial to his physical, mental and psychological development. At the same time, he can best excel in the field he has an aptitude for.

We must also remember that children learn according to their abilities and in terms of what nature has endowed them with. An effective teacher is one who has the ability to recognize a child’s aptitude and help him or her excel in his area of interest. Teachers should consistently encourage students to cultivate their skills and not to strive to excel in what he is not good at. The teacher must be a keen observer of a child’s behavior. Apart from classroom lessons, learning from experience, curiosity, and observation is also a natural process. Hence the social milieu in which a child grows up has a significant role to play in the child’s education. Nowadays, with the breakdown of the family values, loneliness has become a deterrent to the healthy growth of a child.

Hence the teachers should also be in constant interaction with parents, especially in the case of children with attitude problems. Thus a teacher also has a vital role to play in the psychological well-being of a child. To effectively take on these multifaceted roles, the teacher must not only be academically accomplished but also morally sound and socially mature. How thoroughly he has understood and accepted his responsibilities, determines his success as an educator.
Over and above these basics, a teacher must have patience, self-direction, and perseverance.
The teacher’s position is like that of the medical practitioner who has to study his patient before giving a prescription. The teacher who knows his pupils and the psychological principles, but does not know diagnose and improve his own behavior and his relationship with his pupils may be ineffective. Educational psychology functions as an essential aid to the work of the teacher. It, therefore, assists him to develop competence in studying children, in utilizing psychological principles, and in evaluating his own teaching methods.


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5 Difficult Things About SENSES ARE THE AVENUES OF LEARNING.


 SENSES ARE THE AVENUES OF LEARNING.


It is very important that the instructor should make use of trainee’s senses. No senses no learning is possible. Some books on the psychology of learning called “METHODS” as ROADWAYS and” “SENSES as GATE WAYES to the mind.
The main question of learning just “how the student does learn”. The position of the instructor is just like a supplier of material like facts, ideas, skills, and principals, etc, which are new to the learners. Learner’s mind is surrounded by the wall of ignorance which has a few entrances. Those entrances are nothing but the senses, the avenue of learning, which help in communicating the knowledge, etc.
There are five senses i.e., sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste. Some of them are very important to be used for craftsmen Training.
5 Difficult Things About SENSES
5 Difficult Things About SENSES
There is one more sense known as “kinesthetic” sense, which means the sense of movement, making the judgment of weight, etc. This sense has not got any particular avenue out of exploited with the coordination of senses of sight, hearing and touch, etc. It helps in a great deal in the development of skills.
It is very important to see as many senses as possible exploit while teaching or learning because of the following reasons:
a) Less chance of being misunderstood.
b) Different trainees depend on each sensor to a different degree.
c) The more sense stimulated (used), the greater the impact (impression).
d) Increases the chance of remembering.
e) Utilizing those senses which are most important to the trainees in relation to the specific matter at hand.
f) Stimulating these senses as often as possible for retention in learning.

LEARNER LEARNS THROUGH SENSES:
It is now known in details how trainees learn through senses. Following are five senses which have their gateway or the avenue to communicate the information to the central nervous system (figure below ) as shown each. In order to show the relationship for use, we might allot percentage value to each. Psychologists differ as to precise proportions but generally agree to the order of individual understandings. It may differ according to the nature of trade, environment, and condition.
 SENSES
   SENSES
Sensory learning is concerned with perception and sense. Sense organs are generally called the “gates of knowledge”. A particular type of knowledge is acquired through particular sense organs. With the associations and reaction to the environment, sense organs grow conscious. The body consists of various sense organs and different types of sensation correspond to each sense organ. They are:
1) The sense of sight (Visual sensation) is through eyes. Colour, similarity, dissimilarity, reading and for all visual stimuli we use eyes.
2) The sense of hearing (Auditory sensation) is through ears. Sounds of different nature, teachers talk, discussions, sounds made by machines and materials or any other voice or sound reaches the ears as stimuli eliciting responses.
3) The sense of smell (Olfactory sensation) is through the nose. We can identify different oils, burning of rubber insulation or coils immediately through the smell, as and when the proper response occurs.
4) The sense of taste (Gustatory sensation) is through the tongue. We use the tongue to know the taste and through the taste, we find the difference between sweet, salt, tea, coffee, cheese, butter, etc. In the food processing or catering field, this sense is much in use.
5) The sense of touch (Tactile sensation) is through links or parts of the body. Touching enables one to find out smoothness, softness, hardness, and roughness of different degree. By proper utilization of this sensation, even blind men develop strong stimuli to other responses involving other organs.
6) Kinesthetic (Muscular sense). We perceive through muscular feel when pressing, pulling, pushing, holding, balancing, etc.
All the six senses play an important part in the acquisition of motor skills and knowledge and they are known as avenues of learning. A good instructor exploits as many senses as possible and each of the sense responds only to its own type of stimuli. 

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Monday, April 8, 2019

Things You Probably Didn't Know About LAWS OF LEARNING


LAWS OF LEARNING.
.      
Laws or rules are based on the research of famous educators, philosophers, doctors and psychologist over hundred’s of years. (Research-Experiments and observations about human reactions under different teaching condition).
There are many laws of learning used in teaching and learning situations, out of which, the following are some of the important learning laws.
laws-of-learning
LAWS OF LEARNING

1.    LAW OF READINESS: It is found that a learner learns more and better when he is mentally ready to learn the new item or subject. When the mind is properly stimulated (to excite), the responsibility for action on learning will be automatic.
2.    LAW OF PURPOSE: Learner takes more interest in learning when he finds some purpose and need of that learning. If the purpose and need are more connected with every day or future work the interest in learning will be more.
This is applicable with “Why step” and also “tell and show step”.
3.    LAW OF UNDERSTANDING: There can not be any good and correct learning without understanding. Learning without understanding cannot be remembered for long. Understanding is the base and stimulation for further learning. Hence any good result of learning is based on understanding.
It is applicable in “tell and shows” step of the lesson.
4.    LAW OF SATISFACTION:  Every learner must be satisfied in the learning. Satisfaction in learning depends on understanding, answering, solving the problem, performing jobs, etc. satisfaction is more when performance show good result.
It is found learner takes more interest in further learning when he is satisfied in present learning. For new learners response or interest for next learning depends on much on his performances during initial learning. Hence the teacher should teach carefully, correctly, and with an easy method, also allot easier jobs.
5.    LAW OF ASSOCIATION: New learning is based on some previous knowledge and experience. New Knowledge associates or connects with previous knowledge for easy and clear understanding.
This is the help or makes better learning and long remembering.
There are different types of association:-
a)    Association by Similarity:- Things similar in some way-
Example- i) man, ii)     the machine, iii) work, iv) color, v) taste, etc.
b)    Association by continuity:- Things and results are continuous-
Example- Type of machine, what type of work is done by it.
c)    Association by contrast:- (Opposition) Things opposite in character-
Example- Good teacher with a bad teacher, Good machine with bad machine.
d)    Association by cause and effect:- Result of any action of work-
Example- Electricity with fan power, Accident with injury.


6.    LAW OF GRADED STEP: Learning cannot be done continuously. Brain and other parts of our body need rest. If learning goes on continuously without rest then the brain will be tired with fatigue. Then learning will be less and that learning cannot be remembered long.
                                                                             A
      Learning amount                                   X      
      So learning should continue systematically (in sequence) and some rest in between. In the figure “X” portion are learning portion and “A” portion are resting portion or no learning periods. Applicable for why and tell & show step.
7.    LAW OF RECENCY-(NEW):- It is found that the learning which is learned recently can be remembered easily. But much of the old learning’s are forgotten. The learning can be made recent in the following ways.
Method: - i) Revision, ii) Assignment (Home task), iii) Regular test.  
8.    LAW OF EXERCISE: No learning can be full and accurate without exercise, means the practice or doing. It may be a mental or physical practice. Every learning there should be sufficient or proper doing or practice for proper understanding and good learning.
According to this law, the more times a stimulus-induced response is repeated, the longer it will be retained. As Thorndike put it, “Others things being equal, exercise strengthens the bond between situation and response”. Conversely, a bond is weakened through failure to exercise it. 
 It is applicable in “DO” step and “TEST” step of the lesson. 

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Saturday, April 6, 2019

Eliminate Your Fears And Doubts About THEORIES OF LEARNING

  THEORIES OF LEARNING
A number of theories have been developed to explain the learning process. Most of these theories were constructed on the basis of the experimental investigation by different psychologists. The aim of a learning theory is to explain how learning takes place and how it does not. Out of a large number of theories the following three deserve attention.
Add caption

a)    Conditioned Response Theory.
b)   Trial & Error Theory.
c)       Insight Theory.
                                                                       
A) CONDITIONED RESPONSE THEORY:

In the pattern conditioned response learning, one connects a response with a stimulus which did not produce that response earlier. It was the Russian psychologist, Pavlov, who first made the classical conditioned response experiment on a dog.
By conditioning one learns to do new things forming connections between a stimulus and a response. It could be illustrated by experiment on the conditioning of salivary reflex in a hungry dog. If the ringing of a bell or the application of an electric shock accomplishes the presentation of food which causes flow of saliva, then on later occasion mere ringing of the bell or the application of shock will tend to cause the flow of saliva.
This may need many repetitions. The conditioned stimulus (bell) is repeatedly presented first before the unconditioned one (food), which will ultimately bring the desired response. If the conditioned response connection is favorable or rewarding, then there is every chance of forming this connection by lesser number of repetitions. If the dog is rewarded of food almost every time, the connection is established quickly. Conversely, if the dog is not rewarded this connection weakens.
In children’s learning when the teacher wants them to form stimulus response connection, he may follow this learning pattern. Children learn their habits of behavior through such conditioning.

The Classical Conditioning Procedure:
In scientific terms, the procedure for this is as follows.
1 Food is the unconditioned stimulus or UCS. By this, Pavlov meant that the stimulus that elicited the response occurred naturally.
2 The salivation to the food is an unconditioned response (UCR) that is a response which occurs naturally.
conditioned-response-theory
Conditioned Response Theory

3 The bell is the conditioned stimulus (CS) because it will only produce salivation on condition that it is presented with the food.
4 Salivation to the bell alone is the conditioned response (CR), a response to the conditioned stimulus.



Exercise
Try the following exercise for yourselves:
Name the four components of classical conditioning in the following situations.
1. Sara is watching a storm. A bolt of lightening is followed immediately by a huge crash of thunder and makes her jump. This happens several more times. The storm starts to move away and there is a gap between the lightening bolt and the sound of thunder, yet Sara jumps at the lightening bolt.
What is the:
UCS
UCR
CS
CR
2. Steve's mouth waters whenever he eats anything with lemon in. One day, while seeing an advertisement showing lemons, his mouth begins to water.
What is the:
UCS
UCR
CS
CR

Nearly all automatic, involuntary responses can become a conditioned response:
Heartbeat, stomach secretion, blood pressure, brain waves etc. For the conditioning to be effective, the conditioned stimulus should occur before the unconditioned stimulus, not after. This is because, in classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus becomes a kind of signal for the unconditioned stimulus.
The following are some of the important principles of classical conditioning:
Extinction
If a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus, then the conditioned response will disappear. This is known as extinction. If a dog learns to associate the sound of a bell with food and then the bell is rung repeatedly, but no food is presented, the dog will soon stop salivating at the sound of the bell.
Stimulus Generalisation
A dog who has been conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell of one tone, may well salivate to a similar sounding bell or a buzzer. Stimulus generalisation is the extension of the conditioned response from the original stimulus to similar stimuli.
Discrimination
An animal or person can be taught to discriminate between different stimuli. For example, if a dog is shown a red circle every time he is fed, then he will salivate at the sight of the red circle alone. But initially, the dog may generalise and salivate at circles of any colour. If the dog is only fed when the red circle is presented and not when other colours are shown, he will learn to discriminate between red and the other colours.
Higher Order Conditioning
This is where more than one stimulus is paired and presented; there can be a chain of events that are linked to the same stimulus. It is thought that words may acquire their emotional meaning through higher order conditioning, for example by pairing the words with something that causes emotion, eventually the word alone will have the emotional meaning. 
Exercise
Think about the following scenarios and try to apply some of the aspects of classical conditioning:
How we acquire likes or dislikes for certain foods.
How classical conditioning may be used to treat conditions such as alcoholism.
How advertisers use classical conditioning.
How phobias and fears can be acquired.
How phobias and fears could be treated.




b)  LEARNING BY TRIAL & ERROR:

In trial & error learning, the learner at first does a number of things which do not serve his purpose at all. After several attempts of his trials he makes a successful response. How does the learner retain this learning? After quite a number of repetitions, it is found that unsuccessful attempts are given up and successful ones are acted upon. By way of practice, the learner comes to a stage when he does not make a single mistake. The above description will be made clear by THORNDIKE’S animal experiment.
A cat is placed in a box which has a door at one end. A hinge is so arranged at the door that a light pressure on the floor slat near the door helps it to open. A dish of fish is placed on the floor outside the box near the door which the cat cannot reach from the box.
The cat is hungry and wants to get out of the box to reach the food. It makes many accidental attempts with no results. At one instance, it happens to step on the slat. The door opens and the cat is out. Again and again, the cat is put into the box. Gradually, the cat rejects and abandons all its unsuccessful attempts. After many attempts the cat makes an exit without a single mistake. Towards the end, it walks straight to the slat and opens the door.
                 

trial-&-error-theory
Trial & Error Theory

This method of learning has four characteristics.
First, the individual has a motive, a need, a purpose and a goal.
Secondly, the individual makes several attempts to fulfill his desire. Various kinds of activities are performed to fulfill the purpose.
Thirdly, the individual eliminates the wrong kind of activities which seem to be of no use.  Finally, he establishes his desire through successful attempts.
There are two facts to this kind of learning, first, the appearance of the correct behavior; second, skill in its execution. At first the learner attempts all kinds of hit and misses trials before spotting out the correct response. Secondly, by practicing it he learns the skill. 


C) LEARNING BY INSIGHT:-

This approach of learning was introduced by the Gestalt School of Psychology. They insist that all learning is accompanied through insight. In their own words, this learning can be described as follows. Insight means the process of establishing new organized wholes. The method involves understanding and seeing relations between things and then obtaining insight. It is not a matter of repetition in conditioning or of practice as in trial and error. It is an understanding. The learner with a goal in view finds the relationship between means and ends and reorganizes his activities in such a way that suddenly he achieves his goal. Though it comes suddenly, yet it comes through understanding. As soon as he gets to understand the concept, immediately he applies it to his purpose. Learning, then, becomes less repetitive and less difficult to retain and recall.
To give an example of insight approach to learning we have to refer to Kohler’s study on the chimpanzee.
A chimpanzee is placed in a cage. Outside the cage, on one side are some bananas. The chimpanzee is hungry. Its long arms cannot reach the bananas. Within the cage are some sticks near the door of the cage. It first tries to reach the fruit with its hands. Of course, it meets with failure.
This continues for some time with various kinds of attempts. Suddenly, the chimpanzee jumps seizes stick and very clearly pulls the bananas.
      From the above, the steps in insight learning may be described as follows:
a.    The learner perceives a situation.
b.    He acts on this perception and redefines the situation in a new perception.
c.    He acts again on this.

                                     


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